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Instructor: Professor Rogier A. Windhorst.

Location and Time: PSF-226; Tuesdays & Thursdays 1:40--2:55 pm.

Office hours: Tuesday and Thursdays 3:00-3:40 pm, and Fridays 3:00-4:00 pm, all in room PSF-246. Messages for me can also be left in my mailbox in room PSF-470.

Textbook: Modern cosmology deals with $\sim10^{80}$ particles and $10^{89}$ photons in a volume that is currently $\sim 10^{120}\times$ that of the electron, and describes an era $\sim 10^{60}\times$ longer than the Planck time. This is why no-one has a complete grasp of the subject, so there is no good modern textbook on cosmology. I spent quite some time to find textbooks on (observational) cosmology that are acceptable, and came up with the following:

$\bullet$ (0) ``Galaxy Formation'', 1998, by Malcolm S. Longair (Berlin: Springer Verlag), ISBN=3-540-63785-0, hardcover costs about $ 70. This is a remarkably good book that strikes the right balance between modern theories and modern observations, without getting lost in unnecessary details. It is about the best modern book that lays the foundations for observational cosmology. Written by one of the most gifted observational astronomers in the UK. This book was not yet available last time I taught this class, so it's a new book for the 2002 course.

$\bullet$ (1) ``Cosmology'', Third Edition, by Michael Rowan-Robinson, 1996, Oxford University Press (New York), ISBN=0-19-851884-6, cost is about $ 30. This is modern cosmology in a nutshell at the upper undergraduate level. Despite the biases that this well-respected author has in certain areas, this book is remarkably complete and useful, and reasonably up-to-date, and doesn't make you feel lost theoretically. In 160 pages, it can only touch the main issues superficially, so I will only use it rarely (mostly at the 322/422 level courses).

$\bullet$ (2) ``The Deep Universe, by A. R. Sandage, R. G. Kron, and M. S. Longair, 1995, Eds. B. Binggeli, R. Buser, Saas Fee Advanced Course 23, Lecture Notes 1993. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy, Springer Verlag (Berlin), 528 pages, 18 Figures, 12 Tables. ISBN = 3-540-58913-9. (

Book (0) is available at the ASU Book Store, and book (1) is available in regular bookstores. Book (2) used to sell for $ 59 (hardcover), but is now out of stock and out of print. Only 800 copies were printed. I have permission from Sandage himself (the grand-master of cosmology) to Xerox the relevant parts of this book for you, which we distribute to you at cost-price.

If you take this course for a grade, you want to have access to both book (0), and I will reproduce the relevant parts of book (2) in the few occasions were book (0) is not sufficient. Sharing books is fine with me (as long as you don't borrow them from my bookshelf the day before class!).

Other books on Cosmology that are useful, but by no means complete, nor up-to-date, nor unbiased, are the following:

$\bullet$ (3) ``Principle of Physical Cosmology'' by P. J. E. Peebles, 1993, Princeton University Press (Princeton), ISBN=0-691-01933-9. Costs about $ 33. Written by one of the great theoretical cosmologists of our time, and bears his stamp as such. This book is too detailed theoretically for a one semester course, and rather sporadic (and somewhat biased) on the observational part. Issues are not always discussed in logical order, and it discusses at length many of the wrong ideas in cosmology from the last century, so one sometimes can't see the trees through the forest.

$\bullet$ (4) ``Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure'' by P. Coles and F. Lucchin, 1996, Wiley (New York), ISBN=0-471-95473-X, costs about $ 58. In-depth, modern theoretical treaty of cosmology, but comparison to the modern data in cosmology is rather poor, although no more confusing than (3).

$\bullet$ (5) ``The Big Bang'', by Joe Silk, 1989, W. H. Freeman and Co (New York), ISBN=0-7167-1812-X. Costs about $ 20. Good general treaty on the subject by one of the demi-gods in the field, although at the undergraduate level and without formulae in the main text. Relevant formulae are in an Appendix (that constitutes a nice source for exam questions!). No systematic attempt is made to compare theories to modern data, but where it is attempted, at least no harm is done.

$\bullet$ (6) ``The Early Universe'', by Rocky Kolb and Michael Turner, 1990, 1994, Addison-Wesley (New York), ISBN=0-201-62674-8. Costs about $ 25. Exquisite theoretical but mathematically difficult treaty of the Big-Bang, written by two experts in the field of theoretical cosmology. But has very nice transitions to modern observations, although only in certain areas, while other important ones are lacking (yet in many respects better than any of the other books). Certainly the most funny and entertaining of all cosmology books.

$\bullet$ (7) ``Introduction to Cosmology'', by Jayant Narlikar, 1983, Jones and Bartlett (New York), ISBN=0-86720-015-4. Costs about $ 40. Despite its age, a remarkably useful text in both theoretical and observational cosmology, written by a senior theoretical cosmologist, who is a supporter of one of the alternative cosmologies, although he does a remarkably fair job depicting the `standard model'. His treaty of general relativity is particularly understandable and useful.

Syllabus: An outline for AST 598 is given in the attached syllabus. We will follow this schedule in principle, but changes may be announced later. I will also attach a brief plan for AST 598, Astrophysics IV, on Active Galactic Nuclei, since I will need to draw on some of this material for the Observational Cosmology course. Since the graduate course on AGN -- AST 598 IV -- doesn't exist yet, I will present some of the necessary material on AGN as we go. The remainder belongs in a special graduate course on AGN.

Class Web Page: The Class Web Page will be at:

WARNING: This site is under development, and we will attempt to make it work and update it during the semester. A printed list of interesting Web address is attached to the syllabus.

Lecture Notes: Relatively good and up-to-date lecture notes on Observational Cosmology and on Active Galactic Nuclei were made by Dr. Chris Impey (UofA) in 1997-1999. These can distributed for about $ 26, the nominal Xerox costs. They do however, not replace the book or my own viewgraphs on the latest relevant materials, including several recent review articles and conference proceedings. As much as possible, I will try to distribute my viewgraphs on paper before, or shortly after, each lecture. You are advised to make your own notes as well. (The distributed copies of the lecture notes were deliberately made single-sided, so you can use the left-pages to add your own notes. This does result, however, in another brick on your bookshelf).

Prerequisites: AST 322 or 422, basic physics and math. I will try to limit the math on GR in the first part of the course (or we'll never get to the important parts). I will design AST 598 Galaxies III so that you can follow it without yet having done the two other extragalactic graduate courses (by Dave Burstein) AST 598 II (Galactic Structure) and I (Galaxies and Extragalactic Astronomy), although you will need to take these in the future if you haven't already done so.

Homework and Term project: There will be some homework questions, and a Term Project, which will entail writing an ApJ Letter style paper on a cosmology subject of your choice. This must be your own work, although you should consult the literature, and may discuss it with others. I am open to other suggestions as to how you want to be tested on the subject. As this is a new graduate course in development, I particularly covet your feedback at the beginning of the semester, and throughout, as to what can be done better.

Exams: There will be a final exam and possibly be a midterm exam, of about equal weight as the Term project. Exam times etc will be announced later, but tentative dates are listed in the attached syllabus.


Because I am further developing this class as we go, I only give a tentative list here of what we will do in each week [which I have labeled by the date of each Tuesday]:

[Aug. 26] $\bullet$ (0) [Ch. 1, 2] Introduction. Big issues in modern cosmology. Main evidence for a hot Big Bang.

[Aug. 26] $\bullet$ (1) [Ch. 3.1-3.3 and 3.7 only; 5] Basic Galaxy properties. The Hubble sequence. The galaxy luminosity function. The extragalactic distance scale: history, results, controversy, and its resolution. Cosmological parameters: $H_0$, $q_0$, $Omega_0$, $T_0$, $z_f$, $z_{reion}$, $\Lambda$, $\Delta T$. How combinations describe the Universe. The values for $H_0$. Recent supernova results.

[Sep. 03] $\bullet$ (2) [Ch. 4] Clusters of Galaxies and Large Scale Structure. Peculiar velocities. Groups, clusters, super-clusters. Topology of the universe. Galaxy correlation functions. Simulations. The evolution of galaxy clustering with cosmic time.

[Sep. 10, 17] $\bullet$ (3) [Ch. 5, 6, 7] Synopsis of Relativistic Cosmology. Friedman - Robertson-Walker models. Olbers paradox. Redshift: origin and measurement. Standard and non-standard cosmological models.

[Sep. 24] $\bullet$ (4) [Ch. 8] The classical cosmological tests: Hubble's law. Angular diameters and $\Theta$-z. Direct physical measurements of $H_o$, $q_o$, $Omega_0$, $\Lambda$, etc. The age problem revisited. Applications of models to counts, redshift distributions, Hubble diagrams, and the EBL. Models with and without Cosmological Constant.

[Oct. 01] $\bullet$ (5) [Ch. 9, 10, 15] Evidence for a hot Big Bang. Homogeneity and Isotropy. Photon/Baryon ratio. Helium production and nucleosynthesis. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CBR): Black-Body nature, large and small scale fluctuations, measurements and upper limits, confrontation with models for structure formation. Recent Boomerang, Maxima, and MAP results.

[Oct. 08] $\bullet$ (6) [Ch. 11, 12] The Early Universe. The Planck time. Horizon problem. Inflation. The Grand Unified Theory. Lepton and Baryon production. Nature of Dark Matter. Domain walls, cosmic strings, and magnetic monopoles. Axions and other topics that you may not choose for your term project.

[Oct. 8] $\bullet$ First set of home-work problems due.

[Oct. 10-11] $\bullet$ 2002 Lowell Observatory Workshop on dwarf irregular galaxies. Since these may be the building blocks of galaxies from which the massive galaxies seen today have formed at high redshifts, I suggest we attend this conference as a class.

[Oct. 15] $\bullet$ (7) [Ch. 12, 13, 14] The epoch of recombination. Surviving Jeans masses. The formation of galaxies and large scale structure. Large and small scale structure of the CBR. Epoch of reheating. Linear and non-linear growth of fluctuations into galaxies. CDM and hydro simulations.

[Oct. 22] $\bullet$ (8) [Ch. 16, 17] Distant galaxies. Galaxy surveys. Redshift surveys. Galaxy counts and colors. The morphological and spectral evolution of galaxies with cosmic time. Initial mass function. Star formation rate. The evolution of stellar populations.

[Oct. 29] $\bullet$ (9) [Ch. 17, 18] The epoch(S) of galaxy formation. Galaxy formation from sub-galactic clumps. Confrontation with Cold Dark Matter. Where are the proto-galaxies? The oldest galaxy ages and the globular cluster problem.

[Nov. 05] $\bullet$ (10) [Ch. 19] The Intergalactic Medium (IGM). Quasar absorption lines. Lyman- $\alpha$ and metal systems. Growth of metallicity in the IGM. Star formation rate, luminosity density, and metal production as function of cosmic epoch.

[Nov. 12] $\bullet$ (11) [Ch. 16, 20] The Dark Ages: the Universe at z $\ge$ 5. The ionizing UV-background. Population III stars. The neutral Hydrogen absorption edge. Did AGN precede or cause galaxy formation? The sub-mm and IR backgrounds. Prospects to find pre-galactic objects with the NGST, ISO, SIRTF, SCUBA, etc. Suggestions for Thesis topics.

[Nov. 19] Last half of home-work problems due on Nov. 19.

[Nov. 19] $\bullet$ (12) [Ch. 17.2-17.6] Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN): Seyfert's + QSO's; Radio galaxies + Quasars. LINERS. The central engine of AGN. Supermassive black holes. Morphology of extragalactic radio sources. Buoyancy in clusters. Compact sources as rigid rods. The unified picture of AGN.

[Nov. 26] $\bullet$ Term project due on this date.

[Nov. 26] $\bullet$ (13) [Ch. 17.2-17.6] The cosmological evolution of AGN: Radio sources, Quasars, X-ray sources. Constraints from source counts and luminosity functions. Relation of AGN to high redshift galaxies. Alignment effect. Did AGN cause galaxy formation? Relation between cosmological and galaxy evolution. Epoch dependent merger rate and CDM.

[Dec. 01] $\bullet$ (14) Spare week -- used for overflow. Schedule (new) material that came up or material that could not be totally covered during the semester.

[Dec. 10] $\bullet$ Review of material. Discussion of term projects.

FINAL EXAM: Thursday, Dec. 12, 12:20-2:10 pm in PSF-226. (Or at an earlier date if we can all agree on one).




       (List under development, please bear with us)


(This list):

(N. Wright's Cosmo calculator):

(Grand Challenge simulations):

(NASA HQ home page):

(All NASA missions):

(General Space Science News):

(NASA Human Space Flights):

(NASA Launch calendar etc):

(Launch calendar):

(Satellite Weather images):

(Astronomy Picture Of the Day):

(The Faint Blue Galaxy Mystery):

(Discovery of Galaxy Building Blocks):

(Ultraviolet Galaxies):

(The Space Telescope Science Institute):

(The Space Telescope Science Institute):"

(Best of Hubble Space Telescope):

(Detailed list of Hubble images):

(Hubble Press releases occur every week, so list below is not updated!):

(Inside-out trips thru Universe):

(Back to top of this list): ================================================================================

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Rogier A. Windhorst 2002-08-27